Characteristics: Broad-leaved, deciduous shrub
Leaves: Alternate, simple, deciduous to semi-evergreen, deep green color
Flowers: Small yellow catkins in early spring.
Fruit: White to gray waxy round fruit on female
plants, early September persisting through May,
Growth: Medium growth rate. Height: 6-12’ Spread
Shade: Tolerates partial shade
Habitat: Tidal fresh and brackish marshes and swamps, sand flats and dunes.
Hydrology: Facultative, fresh to brackish water up to approximately 20 ppt.
Tidal zone above mean high water to upland
Range: Newfoundland and south to North Carolina, primarily along coastal areas.
Comments: Drought tolerant, nitrogen fixing, excellent in mass plantings or
borders. Winter food source for many songbirds such as eastern meadowlark,
yellow rumped warbler, tree swallow and red winged blackbird, waterfowl, shorebirds